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  UM Refereed Academic Journals
 
 
Malaysian Journal of Science
 
Sustainable Agriculture: A Case Study on the Palm Oil Industry.
Aikanathan, S., Chenayah, S., Sasekumar, A.,

Abstract:
The palm oil industry has long suffered criticism for destroying forest, wildlife and denying rightful ownership of land. To avert these persisting criticisms, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) was formed by a diverse group of stakeholders in the palm oil industry, to promote sustainable agriculture and address environment impact. Sustainability efforts begin from good environmental, social and agricultural practices: where the oil palm is first planted and grown to it final destination, the plate of a consumer or other products. The palm oil industry is the first to have certified sustainable produce, through the RSPO certification. The sustainability measurements are based on RSPO’s 8 principles, 39 criteria, 126 indicators and guidance. The formation of the RSPO has not been without criticism from various sectors, especially the environmental NGOs. Sustainability in agricultural practises is no more an option, and agriculture need to feed the growing billions in the earth’s population. The ever degrading environment needs protection and restoration. But, we can afford to fail with or without RSPO and other efforts by the industry similar to Malaysian Palm and Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil should be given encouragement and support.

Keyword: Agriculture, Palm oil, Sustainable, Small farmers, Life cycle.

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) on the Tropical Microalga Chlorella vulgaris.
Wong, C.y., Teoh, M.l., Phang, S.m., Chu, W.l.,

Abstract:
The effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the growth, lipid content and fatty acid profile of the tropical microalga Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 was investigated under laboratory and natural UVR conditions. The Chlorella was exposed to 10 days of PAR+UVA+UVB (1.17 Wm-2), PAR+UVA (8.54 Wm-2) and PAR alone (42 μmolm-2s-1) in the laboratory study. The natural UVR study was carried out by exposing the cultures to the natural environment on the roof-top of the Institute of Graduate Studies Building, University of Malaya for 54 hours. The average levels of UVA radiation, UVB radiation and PAR irradiance over the exposure period ranged from 3.66 to 27.95 Wm-2, 1.61 to 16.50 Wm-2 and 282 to 1480 μmol m-2s-1, respectively. UVA radiation did not affect the growth of Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 in both the laboratory and natural UVR studies. In contrast, growth was adversely affected by UVB radiation in the laboratory study. UVB radiation is known to decrease the stability of D1 protein (the herbicide binding protein of chloroplasts) of the photosystem II reaction centre (PSII), affect rubisco activity, pigment composition as well as generate superoxide dismutase, all of which would reduce photosynthesis and growth. No significant difference was observed in the lipid content of the cultures exposed to UVR compared to PAR alone in both laboratory and roof-top (natural UVR) cultures. Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 exhibited different response in fatty acid profiles under laboratory condition compared to roof-top (natural UVR) cultures. In the laboratory condition, more saturated fatty acids (SFA) were produced in the cultures exposed to laboratory-produced UVB radiation compared to PAR alone, while more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were produced in the cultures exposed to natural UVB radiation compared to PAR alone.

Keyword: Ultraviolet radiation, Tropics, Microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris, Growth, Fatty acids, Lipids, Algae biotechnology

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Material Flow Analysis of Aluminium in a Dynamic System: Jeram Sanitary Landfill.
Agamuthu, P., Venu Mahendra, M.s., Mohd Afzanizam M.,

Abstract:
Jeram Sanitary Landfill (JSL) receives waste from seven major municipalities, mostly from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor Municipality. The types of waste received are domestic waste, bulky waste and garden waste only. Currently, an average of 2100 tonne of solid waste per day from 470 compactors were landfilled daily at JSL. Each compactor disposed 4.6 tonnes which gives estimated at 766,500 tonnes in 2010. Out of this amount, 9.25 tonnes of Al end up in landfill per year. Most of the aluminum can are sent for recycling with approximately 1.39 tonnes/day. The leaching quantified through both gas and leachate was at 0.42 tonnes/day and 0.14 tonnes/day respectively. From the gas leaching, about 0.34 tonnes/day was released from the soil while 0.12 tonnes/day escaped through evaporation. Al in soil was quantified highest at near surface. This was identified as sink of the whole Al system. A major problem of sanitary landfill is the assessment of element transfers from inputs to outputs as a function of time due to the dynamic nature of the landfill activities.

Keyword: Aluminium, Jeram landfill, Solid Waste Composition, Material Flow.

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Enhancement of Methane Oxidation with Effective Methanotrophic Mixed Cultures.
Barasarathi, Jayanthi, Agamuthu, P.,

Abstract:
The emission of CH4 from landfill is ranked third among the anthropogenic CH4 sources and ranged between 19-40Tg/yr. The Microbial oxidation of landfill methane plays a significant role in reducing the emissions to the atmosphere. This study was carried out to the investigate the impact of several parameters on methane(CH4) oxidation, using compost as biocover. Addition of dedicated methanotrophic bacterial cultures was also included.. Experiments with different concentrations of methanotrophic mixed cultures ranging from 2.33X 107 CFU/g to 11.33X 107 CFU/g showed that the highest oxidation rate with addition of 5.33 X 107 CFU/g was 4.166 X 103ugg-1h-1 . Experiments with different incubation temperature showed that highest oxidation rate of 4.166 X 103ugg-1h-1 was at 35C. Similar oxidation rates were obtained with the addition of mixed culture at 60% moisture content. The highest bacterial count was obtained at 35C at 12.33 X 107 CFU/g while lowest was at 45C. The moisture at 60% showed the highest bacterial count at 10.66 X 107 CFU/g whereas 30% moisture showed the lowest count at 3 X 107 CFU/g. From this study we concluded that the addition of methanotrophic mixed culture gave a significant increase in methane oxidation compared to the control at the optimal temperature and moisture content.

Keyword: Methane oxidation rate, Methanotrophic mixed culture, Compost, Biocover

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Heavy Metal Accumulation in Ipomoea reptans and Helianthus annuus.
Fauziah S.h., Wan Siti Nur Hajar W.i., Agamuthu, P.,

Abstract:
Heavy metals contaminations are among the most hazardous environmental pollution due to its ability to resist disintegration in the natural ecosystem. Thus, they pose risk to living organisms as they are persistent in the environment. Reports on the accumulations of heavy metal in edible plants had alarmed many parties that the general public has become more aware on the seriousness of this issue. Bioaccumulation within the food chain poses potential risks of toxicity effects. Thus, it is crucial to conduct appropriate study to analyze the pathway of the heavy metal elements as a measure to understand the behavior of the heavy metal elements. The aim of this paper is to investigate heavy metal accumulation in plant tissue, particularly the leave, stem and root. Ipomoea reptans and Helianthus annuus were selected as the experimental plant species in the study. Spent dry cell or batteries were utilized as the source of heavy metal contamination of which batteries are commonly discarded in the municipal solid waste stream. Results indicated that the accumulation of heavy metals in the two plants were low and below the limit of European Union Standard for edible plants. However, heavy metal in alkaline batteries exposure was found to promote the growth of longer root in both plants as compared to carbon-zinc batteries and the control. Yet, the accumulation of heavy metal in the plants tissues in this study were only monitored for the period based on the maturation of the plants, longer exposure may result with different outcome, that further investigation is deemed necessary.

Keyword: Heavy metal, Batteries, Edible plants, Bioaccumulations.

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Cloning and Characterisation of ACC Oxidase Gene from Mas (AA) Banana.
Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran, Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq, Somasundram, C.,

Abstract:
Considerable experimental attention has been given to amplify Mas (AA) ACC oxidase gene from Mas (AA) banana (Genbank accession number: EU106081). ACO gene from Mas (AA) has been compared with other homologous gene by using bioinformatics tools to study the characteristics of the gene such as evolutionary history, binding sites, predicted 3D structure and consensus region of the homologous proteins. The finding shows that Mas ACO is member of iron/ascorbate-dependent oxidase superfamily which requires ascorbate and iron for full activity so that it will meet the all the criteria requires as it is expressed in vivo to produce ethylene.

Keyword: ACC Oxidase (ACO), Ethylene, Mas (AA) banana, Musa acuminata, bioinformatics.

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Effect of Myoglobin Concentration as Surface Modifying Molecule in Ultrafiltration Polyetehrsulfone Membrane for Lysozyme Separation.
Nora Aini Ali, Syaima M.t.s., Mazidah M.,

Abstract:
The application of polyethersulfone (PES) as the base polymer for the fabrication of ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) membrane has been vastly studied for several decades. PES had been the material of choice owing to its superior selectivity, stability, good thermal and mechanical strength. However, despite the advantages, the hydrophobicity of PES still remains to be the prime constraint for the wide utilization of this polymer as the opted fabrication material for protein application since hydrophobic surfaces is known to be very susceptible to fouling. Therefore, in this study, ultrafiltration polyethersulfone (UF-PES) membrane has been modified to render the surface with hydrophilic property. The modification is done by using a simple dip coating technique, utilizing myoglobin as the coating reagent. The pH of the coating solution was fixed to pH 7.0 and the concentration of myoglobin was varied to 30, 50 and 70 mg/L. Membranes were named as MPH7-30, MPH7-50 and MPH7-70 with regard to the concentration of the myoglobin solution. To assess the hydrophilicity characteristics, these surface modified membranes were subjected to contact angle analysis. Membranes were also submitted to Attenuated Total Reflection – Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Electro Kinetic Analyzer (EKA) and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) evaluations. Membrane coated with myoglobin solution of pH 7.0 with 50 mg/L concentration (MPH7-50), shows a very remarkable characteristics and performances. Owing to this, MPH7-50 membrane was applied in the ultrafiltration of lysozyme. The stability of the membrane was also estimated from the pure water flux analysis Results showed that, MPH7-50 provides a high flux(21.95 L/m2.h) as well as transmission (98%), thus its utilization for protein components is indeed to be promising.

Keyword: Ultrafiltration, Surface modification, Myoglobin, Hydrophilicity, Coating, Lysozyme.

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Environmental Management Strategy for Shah Alam Solid Waste Transfer Station, Malaysia
Firuza B. M., Nather, Khan I.,

Abstract:
Waste Transfer stations are the integral part of municipal solid waste management. They essentially function as transit waste collection centres enroute to the landfill facility. The Shah Alam solid waste transfer station (SATS) is the first such transfer station to be established at the industrial zone in the city of Shah Alam. The SATS will be designed to receive approximately 1500 tonnes of municipal solid waste daily. The station will have the capacity to expand its waste reception to approximately 2500 tonnes/ day. The key environmental components of concerns during implementation of SATS were air quality, odour, noise, vibration, river water quality, aquatic ecology, socio-economy and traffic and transportation issues around the project area. The baseline data has been collected for the above environmental component and discussed in detail in the existing environmental section of EIA report. Subsequently, the potential environmental impacts arising from the construction and operational phases of the SATS are evaluated based on prevailing regulatory requirements and environmental best management practices. Finally, an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for the SATS was necessary to effectively manage all the potential impacts identified in this report and monitor the activities at the project site during construction and operational phases of the project. This is to ensure that the environmental objectives are met and all activities relating to the implementation of the project are carried out in an environmentally sustainable manner.

Keyword: Solid state management, Waste treatment, Shah Alam, Selagor, Malaysia

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Computer generation of inverse Gaussian samples by envelope rejection
Lee, Wen Jau, Ong, S.h.,

Abstract:
The paper proposes a method for computer sampling from the inverse Gaussian distribution with parameters ? ,m by envelope rejection with the log-logistic distribution as the envelope distribution for?  m. The proposed rejection algorithm is shown to have good efficiency.

Keyword: inverse Gaussian, log-logistic distribution, computer sampling

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the tropical microalga Chlorella vulgaris
Wong, C.y., Teoh, M.l., Phang, S.m., Chu, W.l,

Abstract:
The effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the growth, lipid content and fatty acid profile of the tropical microalga Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 was investigated under laboratory and natural UVR conditions. The Chlorella was exposed to 10 days of PAR+UVA+UVB (1.17 Wm-2), PAR+UVA (8.54 Wm-2) and PAR alone (42 µmolm-2s-1) in the laboratory study. The natural UVR study was carried out by exposing the cultures to the natural environment on the roof-top of the Institute of Graduate Studies Building, University of Malaya for 54 hours. The average levels of UVA radiation, UVB radiation and PAR irradiance over the exposure period ranged from 3.66 to 27.95 Wm-2, 1.61 to 16.50 Wm-2 and 282 to 1480 µmol m-2s-1, respectively. UVA radiation did not affect the growth of Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 in both the laboratory and natural UVR studies. In contrast, growth was adversely affected by UVB radiation in the laboratory study. UVB radiation is known to decrease the stability of D1 protein (the herbicide binding protein of chloroplasts) of the photosystem II reaction centre (PSII), affect rubisco activity, pigment composition as well as generate superoxide dismutase, all of which would reduce photosynthesis and growth. No significant difference was observed in the lipid content of the cultures exposed to UVR compared to PAR alone in both laboratory and roof-top (natural UVR) cultures. Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 exhibited different response in fatty acid profiles under laboratory condition compared to roof-top (natural UVR) cultures. In the laboratory condition, more saturated fatty acids (SFA) were produced in the cultures exposed to laboratory-produced UVB radiation compared to PAR alone, while more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were produced in the cultures exposed to natural UVB radiation compared to PAR alone.

Keyword: ultraviolet radiation, tropics, microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris, growth, fatty acids, lipids, algae biotechnology)

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Material flow analysis of aluminium in a dynamic system: Jeram sanitary landfill
Agamuthu, P., Venu Mahendra, M.s., Mohd Afzanizam, M.,

Abstract:
Jeram Sanitary Landfill (JSL) receives waste from seven major municipalities, mostly from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor Municipality. The types of waste received are domestic waste, bulky waste and garden waste only. Currently, an average of 2100 tonne of solid waste per day from 470 compactors were landfilled daily at JSL. Each compactor disposed 4.6 tonnes which gives estimated at 766,500 tonnes in 2010. Out of this amount, 9.25 tonnes of Al end up in landfill per year. Most of the aluminum can are sent for recycling with approximately 1.39 tonnes/day. The leaching quantified through both gas and leachate was at 0.42 tonnes/day and 0.14 tonnes/day respectively. From the gas leaching, about 0.34 tonnes/day was released from the soil while 0.12 tonnes/day escaped through evaporation. Al in soil was quantified highest at near surface. This was identified as sink of the whole Al system. A major problem of sanitary landfill is the assessment of element transfers from inputs to outputs as a function of time due to the dynamic nature of the landfill activities.

Keyword: Aluminium, Jeram landfill, Solid Waste Composition, Material Flow

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Enhancement of methane oxidation with effective methanotrophic mixed cultures
Barasarathi, Jayanthi, Agamuthu, P.,

Abstract:
The emission of CH4 from landfill is ranked third among the anthropogenic CH4 sources and ranged between 19-40Tg/yr. The Microbial oxidation of landfill methane plays a significant role in reducing the emissions to the atmosphere. This study was carried out to the investigate the impact of several parameters on methane(CH4) oxidation, using compost as biocover. Addition of dedicated methanotrophic bacterial cultures was also included.. Experiments with different concentrations of methanotrophic mixed cultures ranging from 2.33X 107 CFU/g to 11.33X 107 CFU/g showed that the highest oxidation rate with addition of 5.33 X 107 CFU/g was 4.166 X 103ugg-1h-1 . Experiments with different incubation temperature showed that highest oxidation rate of 4.166 X 103ugg-1h-1 was at 35C. Similar oxidation rates were obtained with the addition of mixed culture at 60% moisture content. The highest bacterial count was obtained at 35C at 12.33 X 107 CFU/g while lowest was at 45C. The moisture at 60% showed the highest bacterial count at 10.66 X 107 CFU/g whereas 30% moisture showed the lowest count at 3 X 107 CFU/g. From this study we concluded that the addition of methanotrophic mixed culture gave a significant increase in methane oxidation compared to the control at the optimal temperature and moisture content

Keyword: methane oxidation rate, methanotrophic mixed culture, compost, Biocover

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Heavy metal accumulation in Ipomoea reptans and Helianthus annuus.
Fauziah, S.h., Wan Siti Nurhajar, W.i., Agamuthu, P.,

Abstract:
Heavy metals contaminations are among the most hazardous environmental pollution due to its ability to resist disintegration in the natural ecosystem. Thus, they pose risk to living organisms as they are persistent in the environment. Reports on the accumulations of heavy metal in edible plants had alarmed many parties that the general public has become more aware on the seriousness of this issue. Bioaccumulation within the food chain poses potential risks of toxicity effects. Thus, it is crucial to conduct appropriate study to analyze the pathway of the heavy metal elements as a measure to understand the behavior of the heavy metal elements. The aim of this paper is to investigate heavy metal accumulation in plant tissue, particularly the leave, stem and root. Ipomoea reptans and Helianthus annuus were selected as the experimental plant species in the study. Spent dry cell or batteries were utilized as the source of heavy metal contamination of which batteries are commonly discarded in the municipal solid waste stream. Results indicated that the accumulation of heavy metals in the two plants were low and below the limit of European Union Standard for edible plants. However, heavy metal in alkaline batteries exposure was found to promote the growth of longer root in both plants as compared to carbon-zinc batteries and the control. Yet, the accumulation of heavy metal in the plants tissues in this study were only monitored for the period based on the maturation of the plants, longer exposure may result with different outcome, that further investigation is deemed necessary.

Keyword: heavy metal, batteries, edible plants, bioaccumulations

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Cloning and characterisation of ACC oxidase gene from MAS (AA) banana
Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran, Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce, Somasundram, Chandran,

Abstract:
Considerable experimental attention has been given to amplify Mas (AA) ACC oxidase gene from Mas (AA) banana (Genbank accession number: EU106081). ACO gene from Mas (AA) has been compared with other homologous gene by using bioinformatics tools to study the characteristics of the gene such as evolutionary history, binding sites, predicted 3D structure and consensus region of the homologous proteins. The finding shows that Mas ACO is member of iron/ascorbate-dependent oxidase superfamily which requires ascorbate and iron for full activity so that it will meet the all the criteria requires as it is expressed in vivo to produce ethylene. [Kaedah tertentu telah digunakan untuk mengamplifikasikan gen Mas (AA) ACC oksidase dari pisang Mas (AA) (Nombor Akses Genbank: EU106081). Gen ACC oksidase adalah dari Mas (AA) telah dibandingkan dengan sepuluh gen homologus yang lain dengan menggunakan peralatan bioinformatik untuk mengkaji ciri-ciri, sejarah evolusi, tapak pengikatan, ramalan struktur 3D dan konsensus protein homologi. Berdasarkan dari penemuan ini, didapati bahawa Mas ACO merupakan ahli keluarga oksidase yang bergantung kepada besi/askorbat untuk menjalankan akitiviti sepenuhnnya yang lengkap sepertimana ianya dihasilkan secara ’in vivo’ untuk menghasilkan etilena]

Keyword: ACC Oxidase (ACO), Ethylene, Mas (AA) banana, Musa acuminata, bioinformatics)

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Effect of myoglobin concerntration as surface modifying molecule in ultrafiltration polyetehrsulfone membrane for lysozyme separation.
Noraaini Ali, Syaima, M.t.s., Mazidah, M.,

Abstract:
The application of polyethersulfone (PES) as the base polymer for the fabrication of ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) membrane has been vastly studied for several decades. PES had been the material of choice owing to its superior selectivity, stability, good thermal and mechanical strength. However, despite the advantages, the hydrophobicity of PES still remains to be the prime constraint for the wide utilization of this polymer as the opted fabrication material for protein application since hydrophobic surfaces is known to be very susceptible to fouling. Therefore, in this study, ultrafiltration polyethersulfone (UF-PES) membrane has been modified to render the surface with hydrophilic property. The modification is done by using a simple dip coating technique, utilizing myoglobin as the coating reagent. The pH of the coating solution was fixed to pH 7.0 and the concentration of myoglobin was varied to 30, 50 and 70 mg/L. Membranes were named as MPH7-30, MPH7-50 and MPH7-70 with regard to the concentration of the myoglobin solution. To assess the hydrophilicity characteristics, these surface modified membranes were subjected to contact angle analysis. Membranes were also submitted to Attenuated Total Reflection – Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Electro Kinetic Analyzer (EKA) and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) evaluations. Membrane coated with myoglobin solution of pH 7.0 with 50 mg/L concentration (MPH7-50), shows a very remarkable characteristics and performances. Owing to this, MPH7-50 membrane was applied in the ultrafiltration of lysozyme. The stability of the membrane was also estimated from the pure water flux analysis Results showed that, MPH7-50 provides a high flux(21.95 L/m2.h) as well as transmission (98%), thus its utilization for protein components is indeed to be promising. [ Aplikasi polyethersulfone sebagai polimer asas di dalam fabrikasi membran penuras ultra dan mikro telah dikaji selama berdekad. PES menjadi pilihan disebabkan oleh ciri-cirinya iaitu tahap selektiviti yang unggul, kestabilan, serta kekuatan termal dan mekanikalnya. Walaubagaimanapun, sifat hidrofobik PES masih menjadi masalah utama untuk penggunaan polimer ini secara meluas, terutamanya dalam aplikasi protein kerana permukaan yang bersifat hidrofobik mempunyai potensi untuk masalah penyumbatan membran. Oleh itu, di dalam kajian ini membran PES telah diubahsuai untuk menambahkan ciri-ciri hidrofilik kepada permukaannya menggunakan teknik pencelupan mudah dengan myoglobin. pH cecair pencelup ditetapkan pada pH7.0 dan kepekatan divariasikan kepada 30, 50 dan 70mg/L. Membran kemudiannya dinamakan sebagai MPH7-30, MPH7-50 dan MPH7-70 bergantung kepada kepekatan myoglobin. Tahap hidrofilik diperiksa mengukur sudut kebolehbasahan (contact angle). Membran juga diakses menggunakan Total Refleksi Atenuasi Spektroskopi penukaran Fourier Inframerah (ATR-FTIR) dan penganalisa elektron kinetik (EKA). Saiz molekul maksimum yang boleh ditapisi oleh membran (MWCO) juga turut diuukur. Membran yang dimodifikasi dengan myoglobin pada pH 7.0 dan berkepekatan 50 mg/L (MPH7-50), menunjukkan karakter terbaik. Membran yang diubahsuai pada keadaan ini kemudiannya digunakan untuk proses selanjutnya dalam kajian ini, iaitu ultrafiltrasi lysozyme. Kestabilan membran ini juga turut dikaji dengan mengukur kebolehtelapan membran ini terhadap bahan terlarut (air tulen). Keputusan yang diperolehi menunjukkan bahawa membran yang diubahsuai mempunyai fluks dan transmisi yang tinggi, seterusnya membuktikan keupayaan dan potensi membran ini untuk digunakan di dalam aplikasi protein adalah tinggi].

Keyword: Ultrafiltration; Surface modification; Myoglobin; Hydrophilicity; Coating; Lysozyme)

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Environmental management strategy for Shah Alam solid waste transfer station, Malaysia
Firuza, B.m., Khan, I Nather,

Abstract:
Waste Transfer stations are the integral part of municipal solid waste management. They essentially function as transit waste collection centres enroute to the landfill facility. The Shah Alam solid waste transfer station (SATS) is the first such transfer station to be established at the industrial zone in the city of Shah Alam. The SATS will be designed to receive approximately 1500 tonnes of municipal solid waste daily. The station will have the capacity to expand its waste reception to approximately 2500 tonnes/day. The key environmental components of concerns during implementation of SATS were air quality, odour, noise, vibration, river water quality, aquatic ecology, socio-economy and traffic and transportation issues around the project area. The baseline data has been collected for the above environmental component and discussed in detail in the existing environmental section of EIA report. Subsequently, the potential environmental impacts arising from the construction and operational phases of the SATS are evaluated based on prevailing regulatory requirements and environmental best management practices. Finally, an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for the SATS was necessary to effectively manage all the potential impacts identified in this report and monitor the activities at the project site during construction and operational phases of the project. This is to ensure that the environmental objectives are met and all activities relating to the implementation of the project are carried out in an environmentally sustainable manner. Stesen pemindahan merupakan sebahagian daripada aspek pengurusan sisa pepejal di bandar. Stesen ini pada dasarnya berfungsi sebagai pusat transit sisa pepejal sebelum dibawa ke pusat pengumpulan sampah. Stesen Pemindahan Sisa Pepejal Shah Alam (SATS) merupakan stesen transit yang pertama seperti itu dibina di kawasan perindustrian di Seksyen 2, di bandar Shah Alam. SATS direka untuk menerima sekitar 1,500 tan sisa pepejal setiap hari. Stesen tersebut dijangka mampu untuk mempertingkatkan kapasiti penerimaan sisa pepejal sekitar 2,500 tan sehari. Kompenan persekitaran seperti kualiti udara, bau, bunyi, getaran, kualiti air sungai, ekologi sungai, sosio-ekonomi dan isu lalulintas dan pengangkutan di sekitar kawasan projek menjadi fokus utama dalam kajian ini. Data-data asas mengenai komponen persekitaran di atas telah dikumpulkan dan dibincangkan secara terperinci dalam bahagian alam sekitar laporan Penilaian Kesan Persekitaran (EIA). Selain itu, kesan persekitaran yang berpotensi wujud semasa fasa pembinaan dan operasi SATS dinilai berdasarkan keperluan peraturan-peraturan tertentu dan amalan pengurusan persekitaran yang ditetapkan. Hasilnya, Pelan Pengurusan Persekitaran (EMP) diwujudkan memastikan pengurusan yang efektif bagi semua kesan persekitaran yang dikenalpasti berpotensi wujud dalam kajian ini dan pemonitoran di lokasi projek juga perlu dilakukan sepanjang fasa pembinaan dan operasi berlangsung. Ia untuk memastikan semua objektif alam sekitar dapat tercapai dan semua aktiviti berkaitan dengan pelaksanaan projek dilaksanakan menurut prinsip pembangunan lestari.

Keyword: Waste management, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Sustainable agriculture: a case study on the palm oil industry
Aikanathan, S., Chenayah, S., Sasekumar, A.,

Abstract:
The palm oil industry has long suffered criticism for destroying forest, wildlife and denying rightful ownership of land. To avert these persisting criticisms, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) was formed by a diverse group of stakeholders in the palm oil industry, to promote sustainable agriculture and address environment impact. Sustainability efforts begin from good environmental, social and agricultural practices: where the oil palm is first planted and grown to it final destination, the plate of a consumer or other products. The palm oil industry is the first to have certified sustainable produce, through the RSPO certification. The sustainability measurements are based on RSPO’s 8 principles, 39 criteria, 126 indicators and guidance. The formation of the RSPO has not been without criticism from various sectors, especially the environmental NGOs. Sustainability in agricultural practises is no more an option, and agriculture need to feed the growing billions in the earth’s population. The ever degrading environment needs protection and restoration. But, we can afford to fail with or without RSPO and other efforts by the industry similar to Malaysian Palm and Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil should be given encouragement and support.

Keyword: Agriculture, Palm Oil, Sustainable, Small Farmers, Life Cycle

Full paper is available in hardcopy, please contact the Editor-in-Chief
 

 
Copyright 2008 University of Malaya.